It is not for us to make children learn how we teach but for us to teach how they learn – "Gary Reid"


Does my child need speech therapy?
  • Appears to hear but not to understand what you say.
  • Does not make eye contact with others.
  • Uses many fewer words than other children of the same age.
  • Is very difficult to understand after age 3.
  • Stutters often and appears aware and frustrated by his/her stuttering.
  • Does not combine words in new ways.
  • Mispronouncing vowels, saying “coo” instead of “cow”
  • Talking using mostly vowels, omitting whole consonants, saying “a” for “cat”
  • Says a word once and then not using it again
  • Not pointing to objects in books. If you say, “Show me the kitty cat,” he/she flips the page or repeats the phrase but doesn’t actually point to the animal
  • Answering a question by repeating part of your question. If you say, “Do you want milk?” he/she responds by saying, “…you want milk?” instead of nodding his/her head or saying yes (this is called echolalia, and may be an early sign of autism)
  • Not following simple directions and understanding prepositions such as under, on, or over. For instance, he/she doesn’t turn around when you say, “Your ball is right behind you”
  • Struggling using pronouns, saying, “Him not her”
  • Confusing gender, saying, “He hit me” when talking about a girl
  • Not changing or developing his/her language much from month to month
  • At 12 months, understands 50 words; at 15 months, 120 words; at 16 months, 170 words; at 18 months, 200 or more words; by 36 months child should understand approximately 900 words.
  • At 12 months, the average child says up to three words; At 15 months, the average child says 14 words; At 16 months, the average child says 40 words; At 18 months, the average child says 68 words; At 23 months, the average child says about 200 words; by 36 months 500 words.
  • By 36 months child should have a phrase and sentence length of 3 to 4 words
  • Points to pictures of common objects described by their use ( e.g. : “show me what you eat with”) by 36 months
  • Identify others ( e.g.: He, She, You, I) by 36 months
  • Familiar with sounds /m/p/w/n/h by 36 months
  • Refers to him or herself by name by 36 months
  • Have problems chewing foods or swallowing
  • By 6 months child should start biting and chewing
  • By 9 months lip closure for swallowing semi solids
Does my child need Occupational therapy?
  • Withdraw from others or does not like being touched
  • Displays aggressive social behavior
  • Unable to stand in line or have others too close to him/her
  • Avoids “messy” activities like finger paint and play-dough
  • Afraid of activities such as swings, merry-go-rounds, slides
  • Has an excessive need for fast movement activities; may sing or rock self often
  • Is highly distractible and/or can’t pay attention/impulsive
  • Exhibits unsafe behavior
  • Has a weak or unusual pencil grasp
  • Presses too hard or too soft when writing
  • Struggles with dressing, self feeding and sleeping when compared to others his/her age
  • Is overly sensitive to certain sensations/textures
  • Has poor handwriting, grasping/picking up objects buttoning/zipping
  • Has poor attention to task
  • Has difficulty hopping, balance, coordination
  • Has difficulty calming self or difficulty staying alert
  • Has exaggerated behaviors or reactions
  • Has difficulty transitioning or accepting change
  • Has limited play skills/social development
  • Unable to open doors or carry books
  • Difficulty using spoons and forks
Does my child need physical therapy?
  • Appears unsafe on a playground
  • Drops things often
  • Has poor strength, balance, control, coordination
  • Is often tired during the day
  • Is unable to sit correctly in a chair
  • Is unable to get up from the floor easily
  • Has poor posture?
  • Is older than 15 months and is not walking
  • Bumps into things, Seem clumsy, or trips often
  • Has difficulty hopping, balancing and lacks coordination
  • Is Unable to stand on one foot briefly
  • Is unable to alternate feet when climbing stairs
What is a Tongue Thrust or Reverse Swallow?

It is defined as any aberrant tongue placement while swallowing or at rest. The constant pressure of the tongue at rest against or between the teeth, along with the pushing of the tongue during swallowing, can force the teeth out of alignment. Articulation of certain sounds may also be affected by the postural position of the tongue.

What Causes a Tongue Thrust?

The common causes of tongue thrust include allergies, enlarged adenoids, thumb or finger sucking, or a tongue that is “anchored” to the floor of the mouth.  Heredity, neurological, and/or muscular problems may be contributing factors as well.

What are the consequences of tongue thrust/ Reverse Swallow?
  • Slowing & Possible Relapse of Orthodontic Treatment
  • Dental Malalignment
  • Unpleasant Chewing & Eating Appearance
  • Soreness of the Back, Neck & Jaw
  • Temporomandibular Joint Problems (TMJ)
  • Food Avoidance
  • Increased Susceptibility to Cavities & Tooth Decay
How do I know if my child needs therapy to improve his/her feeding skills?
  • Choking or coughing during meals
  • Gagging or vomiting during meals
  • Poor weight gain
  • Children older than 10 months who are not able to tolerate purees.
  • Children older than 12 months who are not able to tolerate soft finger foods (fruits, veggies, bread)
  • Cries or refuses to try new food during meals
  • Food intake is limited to a few non-nutritious items
  • Child will only eat crunchy foods: crackers, cookies
  • Child will only eat puree-like foods: yogurt, pudding, applesauce, etc.
  • Meals are constantly a battle
  • Child has a history of feeding difficulty
What would feeding treatment consist of?
  • Increasing volume of foods eaten
  • Cup drinking
  • Tolerating an oral diet
  • Chewing Foods
  • Self–Feeding
  • Eating a variety of textures and tastes
  • Gaining weight
  • Managing or discontinuing tube feedings
  • Regulating Sensory Processing
  • Decreasing oral and facial hypersensitivities
  • Decreasing avoidance and disruptive behaviors at mealtime
  • Generalizing eating habits to home and community endeavors
  • Improving vocal function due to GERD and LPR
  • Increasing variety of foods eaten
What are some signs of Autism and what should I do if I think my child may have Autism?
  • Has little or no eye contact
  • Does not babble or begin to use words , or has lost his or her speech skills
  • Repeating words, sounds or phrases (tikka-tikka, uhh-uhh-uhh,)
  • Inappropriate laughing, crying, showing distress signs
  • Resists change, prefers routines
  • Prefers to be alone
  • Tantrums frequently
  • Does not interact with peers
  • May not want to cuddle or be cuddled
  • Does not play with toys in the intended manner
  • Often unresponsive to name being called
  • Rocks or moves self frequently
  • Inappropriate attachments to objects

If you think that your child shows signs of autism, you should talk to your pediatrician and request a referral to a neurologist.

What is Auditory Processing Disorder or Central Auditory Processing Disorder?

It is when a person has difficulty responding to and understanding speech in a number of situations. They are not having difficulty hearing sound, but have a hard time understanding what the sound means. (C)APD is thought to be a problem with how the brain perceives and interprets sound, not how ears hear sound.

After sound passes though the ear and reaches the brain, the brain must be able to do these things:

  • Identify from which direction the sound comes (sound localization).
  • Recognize whether two sounds are the same or different.
  • Determine what sounds are high and low pitched.
  • Recognize breaks between sounds in words and words in sentences (temporal aspects of audition).
  • Easily understand speech through background noise or if the speech is muffled.
What are the signs of auditory processing disorder?
  • Listening in noisy situations.
  • Following simple and complex spoken directions.
  • Paying attention.
  • Mixing up sounds in words.
  • Remembering what was said.
  • Learning.
What is phonological Awareness?

The Awareness of sounds in a language, Awareness of rhymes, Awareness that sentences can be broken down into words, syllables, and sounds, Ability to talk about, reflect upon, and manipulate sounds, and Understanding the relationship between written and spoken language.

What are the signs of phonological Awareness disorder?

Difficulty with reading and Spelling